The leaders of Canada, Mexico and the U.S. signed the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) on November 30, 2018. USMCA, which enters into force on July 1, 2020, revises and modernizes the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in place since 1994. See “Trade Agreements” section later in this chapter for more information
Import Tariffs: USMCA maintains the NAFTA tariff exemptions or provides for new staged elimination of duties and barriers to trilateral trade in goods originating in the United States, Mexico, and Canada. However, there are a number of exceptions and caveats noted below that may affect overall pricing of U.S. exports.
Import Fees: All USMCA-eligible products imported “definitively” into Mexico continue to be exempt from the customs processing fee (CPF). Products temporarily imported for processing and re-export may be subject to the CPF since the imports are not considered “definitive.” The CFP, where applicable, is calculated on the U.S. plant value (ex-works price) of the product, plus the inland U.S. freight charges to the border and any other costs listed separately on the invoice and paid by the importer. These can include charges such as export packaging, inland freight cost, and insurance.
Import Requirements and Documentation: The basic Mexican import document is the “pedimento de importación.” Mexico requires import and export documentation including a completed “pedimento,” or import/export form, for all commercial crossings. This document must be accompanied by a commercial invoice (in Spanish), a bill of lading, documents demonstrating guarantee of payment of additional duties for undervalued goods (see “Customs Valuation”) if applicable, and documents demonstrating compliance with Mexican product safety and performance regulations (see “Standards”), if applicable. The import documentation may be prepared and submitted by a licensed Mexican customs house broker or by an importer with sufficient experience in completing the documents.
U.S. Export Controls: Mexico is not subject to any special U.S. export control regulations, and is designated as a Category I country (the least restrictive) for receipt of U.S. high technology products.
Source: The International Trade Administration (ITA), U.S. Department of Commerce www.export.gov; https://www.gob.mx/t-mec